The Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) plays a crucial role in safeguarding the United States' government information systems. Enacted in 2002, FISMA ensures the federal systems that collect, circulate, and store data adhere to a set of standard safety and security controls. Yet even after two decades as the guiding policy for information security, FISMA can still be mystifying to some. To help, we’ve compiled five essential facts about FISMA and its significance in protecting the nation's digital assets.
FISMA was created because the Internet was profoundly changing the relationships among citizens, private businesses, and government.
FISMA was signed into law as part of the E-Government Act of 2002, establishing a comprehensive framework for managing information security within federal agencies. Its primary purpose is to enhance the security of federal government information systems by developing and implementing strong cybersecurity measures. FISMA requires federal agencies to create, document, and enforce information security programs and practices, ensuring the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of our nation’s most sensitive data.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) plays a pivotal role in FISMA implementation.
NIST develops and maintains cybersecurity standards, guidelines, and best practices that federal agencies must follow to comply with FISMA requirements. The NIST Cybersecurity Framework, in particular, provides a structured approach to managing and reducing cybersecurity risk. Federal agencies leverage NIST's expertise to create, maintain, and continuously improve their information security programs, aligning them with the latest cybersecurity practices.
FISMA establishes a continuous and cyclical process consisting of three key phases.
Any organization subject to FISMA oversight must adhere to a set of standard safety and security controls to maintain compliance. The process can be broken into three recurring phases, ensuring that safeguards are continuously challenged and improved.
- Risk Management: Federal agencies identify, assess, and prioritize risks to their information systems, taking into account threats, vulnerabilities, and potential impacts.
- Security Controls Implementation: Agencies implement a set of security controls based on NIST guidelines to mitigate identified risks. These controls cover areas such as access control, data protection, and incident response.
- Continuous Monitoring: FISMA mandates continuous monitoring of information systems to ensure they remain secure over time. Agencies regularly assess the effectiveness of their security controls, respond to emerging threats, and adjust their security strategies accordingly.
FISMA imposes rigorous reporting requirements on federal agencies.
Federal agencies must provide annual reports to Congress detailing the status of their information security programs, risk management efforts, and compliance with FISMA mandates. These reports help ensure transparency and accountability in government cybersecurity efforts. Additionally, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) conducts audits and evaluations to assess agencies' compliance with FISMA and NIST standards, further enhancing accountability.
FISMA keeps evolving.
Since its inception, FISMA has undergone multiple revisions to address emerging cyber threats and technological advancements. The Federal Information Security Modernization Act of 2014 (FISMA 2014) introduced significant changes, emphasizing continuous monitoring, automated security tools, and threat intelligence sharing. The law recognizes the dynamic nature of cybersecurity and the need for federal agencies to adapt continuously to protect sensitive information.
In an era where cybersecurity threats continue to evolve and proliferate, FISMA remains a critical piece of legislation in safeguarding federal government information systems. Its establishment of a comprehensive framework, reliance on NIST guidance, emphasis on continuous improvement, and strict reporting requirements all contribute to a more secure digital landscape for the United States. Still have questions? Ask a FISMA expert! GovDataHosting is a leader in single-source, integrated cloud infrastructure and cloud hosting services that align with FISMA’s rigorous security controls.